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longer possible, then the next best thing would be to give him a
sufficient veneer of civilization to enable him to take his place
among men without really adopting their customs and habits.
But though this view of society as alien to man's real nature does
undoubtedly occur in the Emile, it must not be regarded as ex-
pressing Rousseau's final conclusion. There is another view,
truer to the facts of the case, and more consistent with the educa-
tional doctrine of the Emile as a whole. On this view social
institutions are not so much Unnatural as liable to become un-
natural through the perversion of human nature. At the core of
every institution there is a natural instinct or relationship of some
kind. Marriage, for example, presupposes a natural affinity
between people of different sex. The institution becomes un-
natural when, as a result of convention, marriage takes place in
the absence of affinity. Again, the State is fundamentally one
great family, the relation of ruler and subject being but a further
development of the relation of father and child. The State be-
comes unnatural when the sovereign exacts obedience from the
subject but fails to discharge his own obligations to him. On
this view, the badness of social institutions, so far as the child
is concerned, is not due to the lack of a natural basis, but to the
fact that they are forced on him from without as though they
had none.

Now the application of this to education is simple. The
child can become a member of society and yet remain natural,
provided that the social ideas he has to learn in doing so become
personal to himself, so that he sees in them not an alien im-
position but the expression of his own nature. " If we want
to form the man of nature," says Rousseau, " there need be no
thought of making him a savage and banishing him to the woods.
If he is in the whirl of social life, it is enough that he should not
allow himself to be drawn into it either by his own passions or
by the opinions of men; that he should see with his own eyes
and feel with his own heart; and that he should be governed by
no authority but that of his own reason." * In these circumstances,
Rousseau adds, " the natural progress of the mind is accelerated
by social life, but not changed in direction.3* True education is
simply the development of the original nature of the child,

But what is this original nature that is modified by education ?
* Smile, iv, 163.